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笔记本之父后悔:1000亿的东西只卖出零头

《日本经济新闻》7月5日报道称,东芝已决定在2018年秋季之前将个人电脑(PC)业务出售给夏普。东芝个人电脑曾是席卷全球的明星业务,如今以区区40亿日元的价格卖掉。约2000名东芝员工将进入到此前重建了夏普的台湾鸿海精密工业旗下,他们心中想必是五味杂陈。仅仅三年时间,双方的地位就发生了逆转。

6月15日,在位于东京的东芝客户解决方案立川事业所,员工们表示“夏普收购的事暂时无可奉告”,说完就急忙离开。这家公司的前身是东芝的个人电脑事业部,是2015年曝出东芝财务丑闻的震源地。今年秋季,约2200名员工将转入夏普。

曾在全球市场上高居榜首

东芝个人电脑事业部的前身是原青梅事业所。1960年代提出个人电脑概念的美国计算机大师艾伦·凯(Alan Kay)曾在1989年到访这里。在他到访的半年之前,东芝发布了全球首款笔记本型个人电脑“dynabook”。1994年至2000年,东芝连续七年在全球笔记本电脑市场上高居榜首。

东芝前社长西田厚聪在这段黄金时期担任个人电脑事业部的部长。一位知情人士称,“如果(西田)知道个人电脑业务只卖40亿日元,恐怕九泉之下难以瞑目”。后来西田担任掌管个人电脑部门的内部公司PC&网络公司的社长,被视为东芝社长候选人之一,但一路向上的职业生涯没能一直持续下去。

2002年美国惠普(HP)合并美国电脑公司康柏。中国大陆和台湾的厂商推动个人电脑的日用品化,产品价格加速下滑。

面对这一大趋势,东芝并非无动于衷。2003年美国IBM曾向东芝洽询过出售个人电脑业务事宜。东芝回复称,“收购额为数百亿日元,我们没有余力购买”(东芝高管)。“IBM都在考虑出售,我们也得想办法了”,以财务部门为中心,东芝内部广泛出现危机意识。

但2005年西田厚聪担任社长后,通过别的方式摆脱了危机。他大幅减少本公司生产,转为通过台湾的电子产品代工服务来生产。东芝成为利用电子产品代工服务的先驱。通过削减生产成本实现了扭亏为盈,被赞誉为“西田魔法”。不过,受东芝冷遇的IBM在2005年将个人电脑业务出售给中国联想集团。全球性的重组改变了东芝的方向。

日本企业当中,2011年NEC实质上把电脑业务出售给了联想。在此前后,联想曾向东芝洽询过收购个人电脑业务。东芝一位高管表示,“如果当时就卖了的话,价格应该不会低于1000亿日元”,但当时西田对此不感兴趣。

东芝前高管透露,“个人电脑从2007年前后起就被财务部门列为‘破坏业务’”。“破坏业务”意思是损毁企业价值的业务。财务部门每年都向经营企划部门指出,“能卖的话务必卖掉”,但“经营企划部门揣度出身于个人电脑部门的西田社长的想法,没有像财务部门那样抱有危机感”。

2015年,个人电脑业务被曝出成为东芝财务丑闻的温床。公司滥用“Buy-Sell交易”,先将零部件卖给代工生产商,然后再作为成品收购回来。最后包括西田在内的三任社长辞职,东芝股价也暴跌。

“有兴趣收购个人电脑业务吗?”据悉东芝方面2017年上半年向夏普洽询出售个人电脑业务。尽管夏普社长戴正吴表示出强烈兴趣,但当时正值夏普准备申请从东证二部回归到一部的关键时期。如果此时进行并购,会引发审查时间延长。

夏普当初考虑出价100亿日元

到了2017年年底,夏普开始着手收购,但去年商谈时的收购金额更高一些。6月5日宣布收购后,戴正吴透露了部分谈判内幕。当初夏普方面似乎也考虑以100亿日元左右的价格收购。

鸿海以代工生产iPhone而闻名,在个人电脑和服务器领域也有很强的存在感。通过为惠普和戴尔等美国企业代工,鸿海拥有了相当水平的生产规模,被认为生产着全球半数以上的服务器。鸿海具有压倒性的零部件采购能力和高效生产能力,对于再次涉足个人电脑业务的夏普来说,这将成为最大的武器。

戴正吴对来自东芝的2200人寄予期待,表示虽然还处在从外部观望的阶段,但人才将全部保留。不过,东芝和夏普在年薪水平上有着相当大的差距。

有声音指出,并入5年前还觉得和自己公司不在一个级别的夏普,会有心理上的影响。立川事业所员工表示,“对于经营判断也只能接受,但从个人角度来讲不喜欢夏普”。

在2013年,夏普的合并亏损超过5000亿日元,由于接连更换领导,迷失了经营方向。这一年的东芝则由田中久雄接替佐佐木则夫担任社长。

一位夏普高管曾因供应个人电脑零部件而与东芝打过交道,他永远忘不了田中久雄对他讲过的话。他说,当时由于模块供应迟缓而被问责,被叫到东芝总公司,一进去就被大骂“你们这些三流供应商”。

东芝立川事业所的员工表示,“关于(在夏普的)年收入,一点消息也没听说。不管是涨是落,都无所谓了”,说完就离开了。

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