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电视机改革印记:从“凸面”到“凹面”

1958年,我国第一台黑白电视机诞生。到了改革开放初期的80年代,黑白电视机作为一种奢侈的家电慢慢进入部分家庭。1970年,我国第一台彩色电视机诞生,到了90年代,彩电一跃成为“新三件”之首。据市民回忆,那年头的电视机价格不菲,80年代平均月收入30元,而当时的电视价位300元到一千多不等。

从黑白电视到彩电,从奢侈品变为生活必需品再到极为普通的“家用电器”。改革开放四十年,也是我国电视机奔跑的40年。我国的电视产业从一度依赖于国外技术到自主研发,而后等离子、液晶、OLED、激光、量子等新概念层出不穷。

进入21世纪以来,电视行业格局变换。曾经的电视机品牌松下、东芝、索尼等企业锋芒不再,海信、长虹、创维等国内企业迎头赶上。如今,市场需求也发生了变化,“互联网+人工智能”成为了电视的标配。分析人士认为,产品毛利低、行业技术更新换代快是目前电视产业遇到的最大困境。

市民四个月工资购置一台彩电

“电视偶尔有图像问题出现‘雪花’,拍几下就好。”已过不惑之年的杨发(化名)对6岁那年家里买的第一台电视记忆犹新,“那是我家也是我们村的第一台电视,红颜色的外壳,12英寸的松下牌黑白电视。”

1983年,彼时的电视机还未“飞入”寻常百姓家。“当时全村的人在我家看《霍元甲》”,为杨发儿时的记忆增添了一抹傲娇的色彩。如今这种场景也只能在影视作品中可以看到了。

据杨发回忆,当时市场上国产电视机品牌主要有金星、飞跃、熊猫、牡丹等,还有不少日系品牌,包括松下、东芝、索尼等。

“松下电视或者日本电视很结实、不容易坏,后来邻居家和我们家买的其他新电视,几年后就需要维修,但是最初买的那台电视十几年没有修过,虽然是黑白的,但很清楚。”杨发对于家中第一台电视的最大印象是“皮实”。

时间来到90年代,以“彩电、冰箱、洗衣机”为代表的“新三件”取代了以“自行车、手表、缝纫机”为代表的“老三件”,彩电开始霸占历史舞台。“中学时家中原先那台黑白电视就放在我自己屋里,偶尔看看,家里人看彩色电视了。”杨发回忆道。

1993年,石家庄赵先生花两千元左右买了一台彩电。“熊猫的,从工贸中心买的,又找了辆三轮驮回去。当时刚刚结婚不久。”按照赵先生的回忆,那时他一个月的工资在五百元左右,一台电视大概花掉四个月的工资。

对于当时这笔巨大的开销,赵先生表示自己犹豫了许久,“买的时候也不懂参数,觉得尺寸够大又好看,就下手买了下来。”赵先生回忆,当时大家的心态是普遍认为电视尺寸越大越有面子,而彼时一款熊猫牌21英寸彩色电视是赵先生所能负担的上限。

买回家却被妻子嫌弃了一番,“她听自己上海的同事说熊猫是乡下人才买的牌子。”那时的中国还有诸如黄河、寰宇等早已消失的电视品牌,同时松下、飞利浦等外国品牌也已悄然进入一些经济条件好的人家。赵先生坦言,面子归面子,价格还是普通百姓考虑的最重要因素。

“当时进口电视松下和索尼比较普及,松下电视图像颜色较清晰鲜艳,索尼图像较浓偏深色,周边亲戚朋友较多选择了松下。”1996年,身处南方沿海城市的王强(化名)花了七千元选购了松下彩电,而当时的月工资才几百元。“因为当时大部分人买松下的都是21英寸,我买的是较大的29英寸,按当时来说是很奢侈的了。”这是王强成家后的第一台彩电,他坦言,“满足了当时的虚荣心”。

如今,王强家的松下电视还能正常工作,他儿子笑称,“我家电视比我岁数都大。”而杨发的那台电视机在其大学毕业后被卖给了收废品的。赵先生家的熊猫电视经历了三次搬家,最终因为音响问题在2004年被“以旧换新”淘汰。

“新时代”电视机面临毛利率偏低瓶颈

“越用尺寸越大,最开始屏幕是凸的,后来是平的,现在又流行凹(曲面)的了。”赵先生笑着感慨家用电器更新换代的速度之快。

从黑白到彩色,从“凸面”到“平板”再到“曲面”,从手动拨台到智能遥控,我国的电视机步入了又一个“新时代”。

如今平板电视占据主流地位,出现包括液晶、等离子、OLED等几大技术类型的电视产品。在平板电视开始兴起之际,等离子电视和液晶电视堪称势均力敌。从自2007年开始,包括先锋、日立等等离子厂商相继宣布退出等离子市场,液晶电视完胜。

“至于后来工作后买的松下电视,是当时喜欢等离子电视,知道等离子要停产了,就买了一台松下电视作为留念了。”2006年,杨发对于松下电视的感情不减。

“卖一台电视就赚几十块,而且等离子、液晶、OLED、激光、量子等新概念层出不穷,研发成本增加。”产业分析师洪仕斌认为,产品毛利低、行业技术更新换代快是目前电视产业遇到的最大困境。

随着互联网技术普及,除了显示面板更迭,中国消费者和市场都对电视的功能提出了新的要求。BAT厂商开始与传统电视厂商牵手,投资智能电视,争夺客厅经济,“互联网+AI”成为电视标配。

2006年,创维出资成立酷开,负责研发互联网电视技术,酷开曾分别获得百度旗下爱奇艺和腾讯战略投资。

TCL也推出互联网电视品牌——雷鸟,雷鸟近两年相继获得腾讯和京东投资。

海信则采用科大讯飞的智能电视解决方案。长虹语义也和腾讯叮当AI助手合作,海尔与阿里推出智能电视。

阿里更是推出“TV生态Inside计划”,吸引了海尔、康佳、长虹、海信、创维、夏普、飞利浦、微鲸等传统以及新进互联网电视品牌的加入。

“未来需要坚定不移发展互联网电视,电视成为互联网终端,将会有更多想象空间。”产业分析师洪仕斌认为,电视应该从功能机到智能机进行转变,智能化是行业发展大势所趋。

2017年中国OTT(互联网电视)市场无论是规模、投资、用户,还是内容和广告主,都呈现爆发趋势,尤其是OTT终端的规模持续扩张,已与传统电视终端旗鼓相当。

市场调研机构Statista预计,2021年全球智能家居市场规模将达793亿美元;ABI Re-search的预测观点则认为全球智能家居市场2018年就会达到700亿美元,2021年更是会突破千亿美元。

“电视偶尔有图像问题出现‘雪花’,拍几下就好。”已过不惑之年的杨发(化名)对6岁那年家里买的第一台电视记忆犹新,“那是我家也是我们村的第一台电视,红颜色的外壳,12英寸的松下牌黑白电视。”

如今,王强家的松下电视还能正常工作,他儿子笑称,“我家电视比我岁数都大。”而杨发的那台电视机在其大学毕业后被卖给了收废品的。赵先生家的熊猫电视经历了三次搬家,最终因为音响问题在2004年被“以旧换新”淘汰。

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